Arthritis is a group of conditions involving damage to
the joints of the body. Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in people
older than fifty-five years.
There are different forms of arthritis; each has a
(degenerative joint disease)
Is a result of trauma to the joint, infection of the
joint, or age. Emerging evidence suggests that abnormal anatomy might
contribute to the early development of osteoarthritis.
arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, autoimmune diseases
In which the body attacks itself.
Is caused by joint infection.
Is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the
joint, causing inflammation.
This is uncommon form of gout caused by the formation
of rhomboid crystals of calcium pyrophosphate.
The main symptom is chronic pain, causing loss of
movement and often stiffness. "Pain" is generally described as a
sharp ache, or a burning sensation in the associated muscles and tendons.
OA can cause a crackling noise (called "crepitus")
when the affected joint is moved or touched, and patients may experience muscle
spasm and contractions in the tendons.
Occasionally, the joints may also be filled with fluid.
Humid weather increases the pain in many patients.
OA- osteoarthritis commonly affects the hands, feet,
spine, and the large weight bearing joints, such as the hips and knees,
although in theory, any joint in the body can be affected.
As OA progresses, the affected joints appear larger, are
stiff and painful, and usually feel worse, the more they are used throughout
the day, thus distinguishing it from rheumatoid arthritis.
In smaller joints, such as at the fingers, hard bony
enlargements, may form, and though they are not necessarily painful,
They do limit the movement of the fingers
OA at the toes leads to the formation of bunions,
rendering them red or swollen.
OA is the most common cause of water on the knee, an
accumulation of excess fluid in or around the knee joint.
The arthritis of rheumatoid arthritis is due to
synovitis, which is inflammation of the synovial membrane that covers the
Joints become red, swollen, tender and warm, and stiffness
prevents their use.
Rheumatoid arthritis affects multiple joints (it is a
polyarthritis). Most commonly, small joints of the hands, feet and cervical
spine are affected, but larger joints like the shoulder and knee can also be
involved, differing per individual. Eventually, synovitis leads to erosion of
the joint surface, causing deformity and loss of function.
Inflammation in the joints manifests itself as a soft,
"doughy" swelling, causing pain and tenderness to palpation and
A sensation of localised warmth, and restricted
movement. Increased stiffness upon waking is often a prominent feature and may
last for more than an hour.
These signs help distinguish rheumatoid from
non-inflammatory diseases of the joints such as osteoarthritis (sometimes
referred to as the "wear-and-tear" of the joints
Gout (also called metabolic arthritis) is a disease
created by a build up of uric acid. In this condition, monosodium urate or uric
acid crystals are deposited on the articular Cartilage of joints, tendons and
surrounding tissues due to elevated concentrations of uric acid in the blood
stream. This provokes an inflammatory reaction of these tissues.
Gout is characterized by excruciating, sudden,
unexpected, burning pain, as well as swelling, redness, warmth, and stiffness
in the affected joint.
This occurs commonly in men in their toes but can
appear in other parts of the body and affects women as well.
Low-grade fever may also be present.
The patient usually suffers from severe pain. For
example, a blanket or even the lightest sheet draping over the affected area
could cause extreme pain.
Gout usually attacks the big toe however; it also can
affect other joints such as the ankle, heel, instep, knee, wrist, elbow,
fingers, and spine. In some cases, the condition may appear in the joints of
small toes that have become immobile due to impact injury earlier in life,
causing poor blood circulation that leads to gout.
(AS; also known as Spondyloarthritis) is a chronic,
painful, degenerative inflammatory arthritis primarily affecting spine and
sacroiliac joints, causing eventual fusion of the spine; it is a member of the
group of the autoimmune spondyloarthropathies with a probable genetic
predisposition. Complete fusion results in a complete rigidity of the spine, a
condition known as bamboo spine.
The typical patient is young, of 15 to 30 years of age,
with chronic pain and stiffness in the lower part of the spine.
Men are affected more than women,
Ankylosing spondylitis is associated with iridocyclitis
causing eye pain and photophobia (increased sensitivity to light).
Other common symptoms are recurring mouth ulcers
(aphthae) and fatigue.
Pain can move or migrate from one side to the other.
Early symptoms may occur at a very young age (e.g., 3
years old), when the patient may experience recurring painful joints (e.g.
knees, elbows) commonly misinterpreted as simple rheumatism.
No matter the severity or location of Arthritis,
Conservative measures such as weight control,
appropriate rest and exercise, and the use of mechanical support devices are
In OA of the knees, knee braces, a cane, or a walker
can be helpful for walking and support.
Regular exercise, if possible, in the form of walking
or swimming, is encouraged.
Applying local heat before and cold packs after
exercise can help relieve pain and inflammation, as can relaxation techniques.
Heat — often moist heat — eases inflammation and
swelling, and may improve circulation, which has a healing effect on the local
Weight loss can relieve joint stress and may delay
Proper advice and guidance by a health care provider is
important in OA management, enabling people with this condition to improve
their quality of life.
Usually in allopathic method of medicine they will
prescribe NSAID’S along with steroids, these medicines may produce some side
effects like obesity, gastritis. In homoeopathic method of treatment we have
good effective medicines for these complaint, Homoeopathic medicines have no
side effects. Long course of treatment is helpful to reduce these problems
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