By Prabhath P February 2005 Ayurveda seeks to remove the root causes of mental illness in a holistic way. Its focus is on prevention through correct diet, exercise, meditation and cultivation of the right attitude. It offers a complex array of therapeutic techniques and natural medicines to restore balance and harmony. In an increasingly insecure and chaotic world, many people are finding conventional psychiatry and psychology inadequate for healing the mind marred by constant stress. Conventional psychiatric practices based on symptom suppression and drugs that cause serious side-effects have prompted people plagued by mental ailments to look for alternative and holistic healing. Concepts of Mental Health in AyurvedaThe ancient system of ayurveda (science of life) offers a holistic approach to mental health that integrates the mind, body and soul. Sushruta, the ancient exponent of ayurveda, defines health as svasthya-a state of total biological equilibrium, where the sensory, mental, emotional and spiritual elements are harmoniously balanced. Ayurvedic theory of health is based on tridosha (primary life forces or biological humours). The five elements (panchabhuta) combine in pairs to constitute the three doshas-vata (ether and air), pitta (water and fire) and kapha (water and earth). The combination of these doshas inherited at birth indicates an individual’s unique constitution. The dynamic balance of tridoshas creates health. Ayurveda defines mental health as a state of mental, intellectual and spiritual well-being. ‘A complete and foolproof definition and interpretation of the mind is impossible to provide…Yet ayurveda has attempted to examine every detail of the mind’s attributes with fair success. The concept of health in ayurveda encompasses not only the physical and mental aspects but also the spiritual aspect, which is missing in the modern psychological discourse,’ says Dr. P. A. Antony of Trichur in Kerala. The ancient classical ayurvedic expert, Charaka, places the mind in the heart though other texts locate it at the head and the navel. These various views are considered complementary rather than contradictory. The mind is functionally divided into ahankara (ego), ichha (desire, will) and buddhi. Ichha, directed by ahankara, controls the mind. Buddhi, or the intellect, takes the decisions. The three gunas (sattva, rajas, tamas) are connected to tridosha in ayurveda. According to S. K. Ramachandra Rao, Ayurveda Academy, Bangalore, ‘The three gunas together are responsible for the existential, experiential, evaluative and transactional dimensions, each of which may serve as a motivational source of stress.’ The ideal state of mind is sattvic, marked by equanimity. An agitated mind is in the rajasic state, while the lethargic and gloomy mind is in the grips of tamas. The accumulation of toxins in the body is termed ama. Psychologically, ama arises from holding on to negative emotions and undigested experiences. According to Dr. Deepak Chopra, who has popularized ayurveda worldwide, ‘The guiding principle of ayurveda is that the mind exerts the deepest influence on the body, and freedom from sickness depends upon contacting our own awareness, bringing it into balance and extending that balance to the body.’ Bhutavidya is the special branch of psychiatry in ayurveda dealing with mental diseases. Some scholars interpret ‘bhuta’ to mean ghosts and spirits who cause abnormal psychological conditions. Others say ‘bhuta’ represents microscopic organisms like viruses and bacteria. Bhutavidya also examines past life karmic causes, which have no explanation in terms of tridosha. Mental disorders are generally divided into doshonmada (physical basis) and bhutonmada (purely mental basis). Elements of Ayurvedic PsychologyCharaka in his treatise Charaka Samhita, describes eight essential psychological factors that are negatively affected in various ways in all psychiatric disorders. The psychopathological condition is a function of these factors, which are manas (mind), buddhi, smriti (memory), sajna jnana (orientation and responsiveness), bhakti (devotion), shila (habits), cheshta (psychomotor activity) and achara (conduct). Compared to other major ayurvedic texts like Sushruta Samhita, and Ashtanga Hrdayam, Charaka Samhita gives more emphasis to the view of life as a self-aware field of pure consciousness and natural intelligence where the knower and the known are one. Signs of Mental Health as per Ayurvedao Good memoryo Taking the right food at the right timeo Awareness of one’s responsibilitieso Awareness of the self and beyond selfo Maintaining cleanliness and hygieneo Doing things with enthusiasmo Cleverness and discriminationo Being braveo Perseveranceo Maintaining cheerfulness irrespective of the situationo Fearlessness in facing situationso Sharp intellectual functioning o Self-sufficiencyo Following a good value systemo Ability to proceed steadfastly against all odds. Dr. Marc Halpern, founder and director of California College of Ayurveda, Nevada City, California, explains that according to ayurveda, the greatest factor in a person’s sensitivity to stress is a substance found within all cellular tissues and the mind, called ojas. Ojas is the vital essence of the immune system and provides the mind with both stability and contentment. The body produces ojas through digesting nourishing foods. A nourishing diet combined with excellent digestion is the key to building ojas. Ayurveda greatly emphasizes proper digestion. This includes selecting the proper foods for a person’s constitution and eating properly. Long-term problems with digestion and elimination deplete ojas, which is protected by instituting a lifestyle that avoids overindulgence, includes sufficient rest and reinforces self-love. Dr. Chopra aptly calls ojas’the bodily counterpart to pure joy.’Other essential factors are prana and tejas. Prana is the subtle energy behind all https://lifepositive.com/Mind/body functions and governs higher states of consciousness. Tejas confers inner radiance and higher perceptual capacities. Dr. Hemant. K. Singh who served as Scientist at the Government of India’s Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI) for thirty years, asserts,’Mental ill health is essentially a result of disequilibrium brought about by unwholesome interaction between the individual and the environment. This interaction operates through an axis consisting of three fundamental factors namely kala (time rhythm), buddhi and indriyata (sense inputs)’. In one of his articles, Dr. Singh summarises the classification of a wide range of psychiatric conditions described in ancient ayurvedic texts as below: Primary psychological conditions caused purely by mental disorders are kama (lust), krodha (anger), lobh (greed), moha (delusion), irshya (jealousy), mana (pride), mada (euphoria), shoka (sorrow, grief), chinta (anxiety), udvega (neurosis), bhaya (fear), harsha (happiness). The psychiatric conditions caused by a combination of physical and mental (psycho-physical) disorders are unmada (psychosis), apasmara (convulsive disorder), apatantraka (hysteria), atattvabhinvesha (obsession), bhrama (illusion, vertigo), tandra (drowsiness), klama (neurasthenia), mada-murchha-sanyasa (loss of sensory perception leading to coma), madatyaya (alcoholism), gadodvega (hypochondriasis). The third classification consists of prakriti or personality disorders. There are sixteen manasa prakriti (psychological personality) representing sixteen types of behavioral traits. Other conditions are buddhimandya or mental retardation of varying degrees, jara-janya-manasa vikara (psychiatric problems of the aged or gerontological disorders), and manodaihika vyadhis or psychosomatic diseases where the cause of disease is mental but the manifestation is somatic. Maharishi Ayurveda is a unique system evolved from traditional ayurveda by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. According to Maharishi Ayurveda, the lack of ability to handle daily stress is due to an imbalance, or lack of coordination of the three main mental functions of dhi (learning), dhriti (retention), and smriti (long-term memory). If you cannot perceive the reality of life, which is blissful, it is an indication of pragya-aparadh, or mistake of the intellect. Charaka Samhita, defines pragya-aparadh as the lack of coordination of dhi, dhriti and smriti. Pragya-aparadh is the source of all disease, since disease originates when the heart, mind or body loses its connection with natural intelligence. Mental stress is caused by the imbalance of prana vata while sadhaka pitta imbalance produces emotional stress. The recommendations of Maharishi Ayurveda aim to restore the balanced functioning of the doshas of mind, body and emotions for restoring the connection of every part of life to the bliss consciousness, our true nature. Ayurvedic Treatment MethodsIn Ayurveda, no two patients are treated alike, and there is no https://lifepositive.com/Mind/body dualism. Ayurveda implies that whatever affects the body has its effect on the mind and vice versa. Ayurveda treats individuals according to their unique physical constitution indicated by the combination of tridosha along with the mental, social and environmental conditions that affect them. The focus is on prevention of illness, promotion of health and longevity for which Charaka and Susruta recommended a life-style consisting of dinacharya (daily) and ritucharya (seasonal activities), involving diet (ahara tatva), vyayam (exercise), meditation and virtuous qualities (sadvrutta). Maharishi Ayurveda prescribes the ayurvedic daily routine, beginning with abhyanga (oil massage), which removes toxins and stimulates the flow of natural intelligence in the body. Transcendental Medit-ation that dissolves deep-rooted stress and promotes harmony, cre
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